The Witches as the Saviours of our Tradition

In the middle age and modern age (centuries XVI and XVII) the witches were seen as a demon creature. A person who was at  league with Satan and was responsible of all the bad things that occurred. Nevertheless, in ancient times the witches fulfilled other role, a pagan role, but for the jews (a.k.a. Christians) that was ‘malefic’.

How the christians thought that the witches were
Christians said that they execute spells, enchantments and other ‘magic’ things. These magic acts were created mostly with words, as enchantments. Enchantment is a word derivative from the latin word incantamentum. This word comes from the verb “incantare”, which means “by the sing”. Thereby, we know that originally the spells were executed singing. Yes, the witches were singers, what they sing? Knowledge, wisdom!

In the Völuspá (The Prophecy of the Seeress), Odin goes to the encounter with a Völva —also known as a witch—. The völva says to him about past times, the things that only an omnipresent mind could remember, as well as the things that will happen, things that only the wisest mind could know. In this poem, Odin is incarnating a child, a child which is learning the secrets of the life, he is learning about the past, but also about the future. He’s in a mound, in a tomb of one of his forebears. The völva says to him (as I mentioned) the things that he must know to be a man, he need have some knowledge to be a real man. The völva is not really one witch, but three. The witches are three because he is learning about the past, living the present, and knowing the future as well. These three witches were in fact the norns,  Urðr (the past, what once was), Verðani (the present, the things that are happening yet) and Skuld (the future, the things that still no happen).

The french word sorcière, as well as the english sorceress and basque sorgin, comes from the latin word sortiariu, which means “speaker of lots/drawer of lots”. We must take into mind the fact that the name of the Moira “Lachesis” has the same meaning. Read this knowing the fact that the Norns, Parcae, Moirai, Sudice and Matres are the same thing, we use the norns as example because is (perhaps) the most known triad and because we gave the example of the Völuspá.


Thereby, we could say that the witches were basically drawer of lots, that is because —obviously— their main “work” was the work of guess the future (naturally, we don’t know exactly the things that will happen, but we know the things that are happening and have a median idea of the things that happened). But anyway, that is only a part of the “job” of the witches, because as I said above, they were known for make enchantments (sings) of knowledge and wisdom, why? I said it practically before, because they said to the children the things that he must know, they enchanted him! The enchantment was the knowledge, and was their responsability sing it to the children.

In later periods, they still had the tradition in mind, and for that reason they were murdered, for sing it. Their “leagues” with satan were actually leagues with their own gods, the pagan gods.

Now we want to put some examples about “traditional” witches, witches of the european folklore. Let me start with the Baba Yaga, a traditional slav witch. Etymologically, her name comes from Baba, which means “woman, old woman“, and Yaga, which probably comes from the Proto-Slavic word and sanskrit अहि  (ahi), meaning “serpent, snake”. The serpent was probably a symbol of wisdom, so we could say that “Baba Yaga” actually means “Wise Woman”. This is a clearly prube about the fact that the witches were wise women, and her appearance was related to this. They were very often (for not say ever) depicted as ugly, lame and old women. The old age clearly represent the wisdom, this has been ever so.

The Baba Yaga wasn’t either a Baba Yaga, but three. This says even more clearly what I’m saying. Three wise women the Baba Yaga were, because they were a more modern depiction of the norns (slav Sudice).


On the other hand, we have the Masca, a traditional witch of the piedmontese (north italian) folklore. In difference with the classical witches, they weren’t necessarily old and ugly. They had the power of inmortality, but no the power of the eternal youth. Thus, when they decided that they didn’t want to live anymore, they could transmit their power to other young women, sometimes men and sometimes cotidian objects. They were responsables basically for all the bad things that happened, but this is only because they were “evil witches“, originally they maybe were responsable for all the things, because they were responsables of the fate! The name “Masca” probably comes from the Occitan word mascar, which means “mumble, babble”, referring to bewitch.

As we can see, the witches were (very often) women who made enchants, which originally is sing the tradition! And this act was deformed and demonized by the judeo-christians, because they don’t want to conserve the europeans traditions alive, they only want dependents crowds easy to rule!

A Traditional Gaulish Society

Lately I’ve been reading some dictionaries of gaulish lenguage to can ‘rebuild’ some aspects of the ancient gaulish society. As other european societies, the gaulish is one more; that is to say, is not really different. Thus, below I’ll put the names that received different social hierarchies.

First of all, I want to make an aclaration: the older gaulish societies were headed by kings, but later these tribes were headed by a council of elder, but ever was a tribal organization, especifically:

Gaulish                                     English                         Role

Toutā                                             Tribe                             Basic Organization

Trebā                                             Settlement                   Villages of a Tribe

Nota Bene!
As you can see “toutā” means “tribe”, therefore, Toutates is “Tribal god” or “Folk’s god (of the gauls)”

The government, as I said above, was formed by kings and lately by a council of elders.

Gaulish                                           English                             Role

Rīχs                                                     King                                   King/leader

Rīganī                                                  Queen                               Queen/leader

Vergobretum                                     Magistrate                         Leaders

Although the council of elders (Vergobretum) was found only in the Aedui’s tribe, is quiet possible that it has been common in other tribes.

Regarding to religion, there was a higher priest, a priest, and we can put the bards too.

Gaulish                                        English                                    Role

Druwis                                             Druid                                        Higher Priest

Gutuatī                                             Priest                                       Summoner Priest

Bardos                                               Bard/Troubadour                 Sing the Tradition

The druids were the higher priests, they headed the rituals and had political power, because (surely) they were also the May kings, therefore, the kings. The “summoner priest” weren’t other thing than people incarnating a particular deity. The druids were all the deities in one person, the summoner priest were one deity in one person, hence they were in a specific temple of a specific deity. The bards were the wisest people in the tradition, and therefore they were singing (or reciting) the tradition in different places, with the purpose of conserve it.

As in all the european societies, also existed the nobility, —the nobles were identified with a torc in their necks—. And if the nobility existed, the “proletariat” existed too.

Gaulish                                                  English                                       Role

Monyācos/Acros                                     Noble                                           Upper Class

Aryos                                                          Free Man                                   Proletariat

Caχtos                                                         Slave                                            Servant

Well, obviously, all the nobles and free men could have slaves in their own power. I can also add that there were two words for persons who weren’t kings or queens, “an-rīχs” and “an-rīgănī” respectively.


Lugus, also known as Loki

We all have heard about various mythologies, for example, Nordic, Gaulish, Roman, Greek or Slavic. However, I can almost assure that you have never heard that in fact, these myths are almost the same, just change the names and languages!

Lately I’ve been working on comparative mythology, (a topic that I will be threating here soon). I found many similarities between gods and goddesses, of all european cultures, some of which do not even share a common PIE (Proto-Indo-European) root. But this is not the case. One of the most “important” discoveries I made, was based on the equivalence of Lugus (Irish Lugh) and the Norse Loki.

We can start by saying that undoubtedly Lugus PIE root is actually “leuk” which means “to shine” or “the shining one”. This does not refer in fact to a sun god, as Apollo, Baldr, Belebog or Belenus, but in fact, is referred to the lightning. Loki also comes from the PIE root “leuk”, therefore, we can assume that both mean “lightning”.

Although many may consider sufficient the fact that both names mean the same, this is not all. In Ireland (and in ancient Gaul, though the original Gaulish name was lost) there was celebrated a festival called “Lughnasadh”, meaning, the “marriage of Lugh/Lugus” wich marks the beginning of the harvest season. This festival, in Scandinavia was called “Slôttublôt” (Late Proto-Nordic “Slantubluta” which means, “Sacrifice of Harvest”) and was celebrated by exactly the same reason, the beginning of the harvest.

Following this, we got to the Norse myth where Loki cuts off Sif ‘s hair ( the golden hair of Sif represent wheat, the main crop ), and therefore we can ensure even more in fact, that both myths are one.

Loki cutting the Sif's hair

Loki cutting the Sif’s hair

Logically, you may think, where’s the relation between lightning and crops? Yes, at first glance there aren’t many connections, but for that you have to remember an ancient harvesting technique, which was that once the harvesting was complete, the cropland was burned, this led to an improved soil to be reused in the next harvest season. And where I am going to? Easy, lightning is what creates the fire! Our Forebears noticed that when the lightning fell ( the electric charge of lightning is lightning, the thunder is just the sound) things that stood in his way, caught fire, hence the reference to Loki/Lugus with the harvest, they were theforce that allowed the fire!

When Loki/Lugus fell to the ground, as I said, fire was generated, which was used in ancient times to treat soil, but this in turn is related to another myth, which is the binding of Fenrir.

Fenrir means “fire that rides on the field,” id est, the technique of harvesting and burning! Fenrir was the son of Loki, therefore, these were directly related. Fenrir was the fire on the field, generated by Loki.

Now we know that the gods wanted to bind Fenrir and, as I’m showing here the binding of Fenrir obviously have to be related to the act of extinguish the fire that lay on the ground.

The gods used three different strings to tie, but only the third Fenrir could not break. Until Ragnarök, obviously. The first string was called Løþingr, which means ” delay, reduction,” i.e, the first technique used by the gods (men) to tie/extinguish Fenrir (fire), which was obviously trying to reduce it, but nevertheless they failed. The second string, called Dromi, also meant “delay”, meaning that the gods were unable to extinguish it, only minimize it! The third time was the charm, and they used the rope Gleipnir, which literally means “Extinguisher”. It was totally silky and light, and it was made of things that do not exist, like the sound of the footfall of a cat, the root of the mountain and the beard of a woman (no, dwarf women of Middle Earth do not count), therefore should be a: transparent, odorless, colorless substance? Of course! Most likely, and logically, the extinguisher used to tie (ie extinguish) Fenrir was the water, and was developed by the dwarves (ancestors), maybe because the water is of great antiquity, as their ancestors. Thus we discard the fact that Fenrir is something like a monstrous evil demon. Fenrir allowed rebirth (that’s why the associated with Ragnarök, that is not the end of the world but the true rebirth of the earth, the beginning of summer) of things such as crops. And Loki was not a kind of Nordic Satan or Lucifer, he was just the one that begat Fenrir, because he created fire, so also to Fenrir, and that is why he is depicted as his father!

PS: The Greek equivalent of Loki/Lugus can be both Prometheus and Hephaestus, the two are related. Prometheus give fire to mankind (like the Lightning did), and Hephaestus was thrown by Zeus (Jupiter, Thor, Taranis, Perun, i.e thunder) from the sky, and falling, this way caughting fire. Both are a possibility.

The hair of Sif

The hair of Sif

HailaR Lukan! HailaR Fanjarîhô!

The Leprechaun Under the Mound

I can assume that the vast majority of readers have heard of the legend of the leprechaun who guards his treasure (usually a pot of gold) on the end of the rainbow. These are just pieces of a very old European tradition of burying the dead ones with their posessions under a tree, or a menhir, otherwise, in a burial mound. For so then in the event that one of his descendants (an initiate) decided to take the name of the deceased, could drop below the burial mound and execute the various rituals required for this. The bifrost (“trembling way” the rainbow bridge of Norse mythology) is not, in fact, more than the trunk of the tree (maybe an ash or oak) that connects the worlds of Asgard (“The home of Æsir/spirits”, treetop) and Midgard (“Middle earth”, the summit of burial mound). And of course, the roots of this tree, reached below the mound (Hel), so it is in fact the end of the rainbow/trunk. I think you can see where I am going. Yes, the leprechaun is no more, in fact, that the dead buried in the tomb, known as dark elf (Svartalfr/Dökkálfr), or dwarf (dvergr), according to Norse mythology. Clearly, the description of dwarf evolved to what we now call a leprechaun. The dead, id est, the leprechaun, was buried with all his wealth, to then be taken by the initiated, spiritually reborning (through its hamingja) as his ancestor, dead in the mound. From this comes the fact that this leprechaun it’s with his wealth at the end of the rainbow. Now it is evident, how many traditions have evolved over time to become myths, and with apparently little logical meaning, except obviously that one is able to interpret and discover more of his heritage, that is the reason by which survived!


A celtic burial mound


A typical representation of a Leprechaun


Hailar WôðanaR!